The 4 Most Common Types of Validations

CIQA Types of validations



1) Prospective validation.

It is the most common type of validation.  It is used for establishing documented evidence prior to process implementation that a system does what it proposed to do based on preplanned protocols. This approach to validation is normally undertaken whenever the process for a new formula (or within a new facility) must be validated before routine pharmaceutical production commences.

2) Retrospective validation.

It is used for facilities, processes, and process controls in operation use that have not undergone a formally documented validation process. Validation of these facilities, processes, and process controls is possible using historical data to provide the necessary documentary evidence that the process is doing what it is believed to do. Therefore, this type of validation is only acceptable for well-established processes and will be inappropriate where there have been recent changes in the composition of products, operating processes, or equipment.

This approach is rarely been used today because it’s very unlikely that any existing product hasn’t been subjected to the Prospective validation process. It is used only for the audit of a validated process.

3) Concurrent validation.

It is used for establishing documented evidence that a facility and processes do what they purport to do, based on information generated during the actual operation of the product manufacturing process. This approach involves monitoring of critical processing steps and end-product testing of current production, to show that the manufacturing process is in a state of control.  Not commonly used, since it represent the highest risk to the business economy and its regulatory compliance reputation with the FDA and its clients.

4) Revalidation (Periodic and After Change).

Revalidation means repeating the original validation effort or any part of it and includes an investigative review of existing performance data. This approach is essential to maintain the validated status of the plant, equipment, manufacturing processes, and computer systems. Possible reasons for starting the revalidation process include:

  • The expiration date of the validations. Some validations have an expiration date(s) of one year, two years, etc. In particular, those related to sterilization, depirogenation, thermal mapping, cleanrooms, etc.
  • The transfer of a product from one plant to another.
  • Changes to the product, the plant, the manufacturing process, the cleaning process, or other changes that could affect product quality.
  • The necessity of periodic checking of the validation results.
  • Significant (usually order of magnitude) increase or decrease in batch size.
  • Sequential batches that fail to meet product and process specifications.

The scope of revalidation procedures depends on the extent of the changes and the effect upon the product.

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For more information about the validation protocols click here,


Option 1. You can create a great protocol, using a template.

You can download a free sample of a validation protocol template in .pdf format or see the complete list of the most popular validation templates, click here.

In addition, you can request a quotation to buy online a full validation template document in MS Word format that is completely editable, ready to fill, and adapt to your needs.

Option 2. We can bring you a formal training on how to create your own validation protocols using our template(s).

This option is recommended if you want to learn more about how to build a robust validation protocol. One of our expert(s) will provide online step-by-step training to your team (unlimited assistance) on how to build a reliable validation protocol using a template. You can improve your corporate validation procedures and policies incorporating our template sections.  It includes the template, an exam, and a training certificate for each assistant.  Request a quote now.

Option 3. We can create for you customized types of validation protocol.

One of our expert(s) will create and prepare for you a customized validation protocol with the inputs and specific information of your company. It may include, online support in document creation, execution, or final reporting, Request a quote online.







Related topics and resources:

Validation Plan, Installation Qualification, Operational Qualification, Performance Qualifications, Component Qualification, Traceability Matrix, Ppk, Control Charts, Cpk, User Requirements, Functional Requirement Specifications, GAMP5, risk assessment

Picture of Ramon Cayuela, MS, BS, Chemical Engineering

Ramon Cayuela, MS, BS, Chemical Engineering

CIQA President and CEO.
I've been working in validation engineering since 1992 with many multinational pharmaceutical companies. I love sharing my passion and knowledge with others. If you have any questions about anything (or just have general questions). I will be more than happy to assist you. You can count on the BEST customer service on CIQA. I go to great lengths to make sure my clients are 100% satisfied with their purchases and check emails/messages consistently throughout the day. You can rest assured that everything being sold here is as-described or your money back. I look forward to working with you!